Faculty of Medicine 

Faculty of Medicine

Department of Physiology

Kuwait University   

Kuwait University 

Welcome to the Renal Physiology Tutorial Web Site!

Dr. Mario Barac-Nieto

Prof. Mario Barac-Nieto

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  1. Outline of Functional Anatomy  (syllabus pages 22-31)
  2. Outline of Renal Hemodynamics  (syllabus pages 32-39)
  3. Outline of Glomerular Filtration  (syllabus pages 40-48)
  4. Outline of Tubular Transport  (syllabus pages 49-54)
  5. Outline of Proximal Tubule Function  (syllabus pages 55-64)
  6. Outline of Countercurrent System and the Loop of Henle   (syllabus pages 65-73)
  7. Outline of Regulation of Total Body and Cell Water   (syllabus pages 74-83)
  8. Outline of Regulation of Body Na and ECFV  (syllabus pages 84-99)
  9. Outline of Regulation of Body Potassium  (syllabus pages 100-109)
  10. Outline of Acid-Base Balance I  (syllabus pages 110-115)
  11. Outline of Acid-Base Balance II  (syllabus pages 115-121)
  12. Outline of Regulation of Bicarbonate  (syllabus pages 122-129)
  13. Outline of Acid-Base Imbalance and Compensation   (syllabus pages 130-137)


  1. Practice Examinations.  University of Arizona, USA.  Practice examinations on various organ systems.  The questions by Dr. Danzler on renal physiology are the ones relevant to this section of our course. Do not click on "Grade the Test" as test grading is available to University of Arizona students only. You can discuss your answers with the course teaching assistants.

Links to Other Web Sites

  1. National Institutes of Health (USA):  General information for patients about kidney disease
  2. RenalNet:  Links to other web sites on nephrology and kidney disease
  3. Nephron Information Center:  Links to pages on renal physiology and renal disease


This tutorial is intended to supplement the instruction in the renal physiology section of the Medical Physiology course taught at Kuwait University.  It is presented over the Internet on the World Wide Web using a standard network browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer.

One object of this tutorial is to get you to think as you must when patient's lives are in your keeping by

To get most benefit from this tutorial, do the following:

Select the topic you wish to study by going to the Outlines section and clicking on one the of the choices listed, for example Functional Anatomy of the Kidney.

You will then be presented with several paragraphs outlining the topic you selected.   Review this topic, using your lecture notes, the syllabus, the textbook, and any other study aids you find useful.  Please note that simply memorizing the outline is not sufficient to get high marks in this course.  You must understand the material and be able to apply it.

In order to test your understanding, go to the Questions section and select questions corresponding to the topic you have reviewed.  Think about the questions.  You will get most out of this tutorial if you discuss the questions with your fellow students in small study groups of perhaps 3-6 students.

If you are interested in clinical aspects of renal function or renal physiology as taught at other medical schools, browse through the Links listed above.


If you have questions on using the Internet for this course, or if you have problems with the questions or any of the material presented in this section of the course, feel free to ask Professor Barac-Nieto or send him an e-mail message at mario@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw.  If you have comments that would make this web site more useful, you can email them to the same address.

Last update:  2004 Jan 01